African-American Archaeology

Newsletter of the African-American Archaeology Network

Applied Archaeology and History Associates, 615 Fairglen Lane, Annapolis, MD 21401

Number 23, Winter 1999

John P. McCarthy,Editor


African Skeletons at Jamestown

The recent issue of CRM: Cultural Resource Management (Vol. 22, No.1) focuses on the Jamestown Archaeological Assessment. The issue includes a brief report by Dr. Douglas W. Owsley of the Smithsonian Institution's Museum of Natural History on the analysis of 15 sets of human remains recovered during archaeological investigations at Jamestown, including the remains of two individuals recently discovered inside James Fort.

The analysis brought new analytical techniques to bear on the remains previously recovered at the site. The demographic composition of the group was assessed with the sex of 12 of the individuals being determined and the age revised for 10. Seven of the individuals had previously been identified as Native American and the remainder had been unidentified. Reanalysis using modern classification methods and comparison databases resulted in the identification of five Africans and the confirmation of only three Native Americans. These Africans were among the first brought to North America.

Of special interest were the nearly complete remains of a male African, 23 to 27 years of age. This individual suffered from advanced tertiary syphilis. ~However, this disease was not the cause of death. The frontal bone of the skull evidenced a circular defect with radiating wedge-shaped fractures indicating the entry point of a projectile, with additional fractures at the exit site. Radiographs revealed fragments of metal surrounding the wound site. This young man had clearly died from a gun shot to the head.

To Dr. Owsley these results argue the importance of complete analysis of human remains, including those held in "old" collections. However, they also appear to be indicative of the violence that accompanied the forced importation of Africans to America.

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Some Thoughts on Spalling on South Carolina Colonoware

Chris Espenshade, Skelly and Loy, Inc., Monroeville, PA

Spalling has been documented on the colonoware from a number of South Carolina slave sites including Yaughan (Wheaton et al. 1983), 38BK202 (Zierden et al. 1986), Mepkin plantation (Ferguson 1992), Hampton plantation (Lewis and Haskell 1980), and the Pinckney Landing slave row (Pietak et al. 1998). Ferguson (1992) reports that nine of the 67 whole colonoware vessels from South Carolina are spalled. Some caution must be exercised here because the majority of the whole vessels were derived from river contexts by sport divers, and failures might be more likely to have been thrown away in the river than us-able vessels. Nevertheless, there is a high frequency of spalling in slave-made pottery in South Carolina, significantly higher than seen in Woodland and Mississippian pottery of the state.

Spalling is interesting in two regards. First, spalling that was severe enough to render a vessel useless should indicate on-site production (Ferguson 1992; Wheaton et al. 1983). Damaged pots probably would not have been transported away from the site of their production. Archaeologists, then, should be happy to see the technological failures represented by spalling, in that spalling helps delineate the locations of production.

A second point is that spalling may indicate a general lack of familiarity with local ceramic resources. A number of factors can contribute to spalling:

The first factor reflects directly on the familiarity of the potter with her or his materials. Compared to colonoware collections, spalling is relatively uncommon in Native American assemblages in South Carolina. The Native Americans probably had a similar firing technology to that of the slaves, but the former may have better understood the limitations of the local clays.

The second factor deals with resistance to thermal shock. Traditional potters are generally very familiar with the stress that can be placed upon the clay bodies they use. Relative newcomers would have been less familiar with the performance of local clays and may have suffered higher losses as a result.

The third factor is related to recognizing problems and finding technological solutions. For example, Native American potters in the Southeast added coarse-very coarse quartz, grog, or fiber to enhance the performance of their pottery. The addition of any of these would decrease the likelihood of spalling, but the slave potters used untempered clays. Again, this suggests an unfamiliarity with the local resources, their problems, and the associated technological solutions.

The last factor might be seen as ironic. The slave potters chose the worst possible mode of surface finish relative to spalling. Burnishing compresses the vessel surface, inhibiting the flow of gasses and liquids. As chemically combined water is released during the firing, it naturally seeks exit from the clay body. On burnished sherds, the exit is at least partially blocked. The result can be spalling, as the blockage is literally blown out of the way. Informal replication has shown that under similar production, drying, and firing conditions, a burnished bowl is more likely to spall than a lightly smoothed bowl. Thus, it appears that the colonoware decorative tradition was not well suited to local ceramic materials and firing conditions.

On the surface, the reader may wonder, "So what?" It makes sense that potters shipped across the ocean from their homeland would be unfamiliar with local materials. This unfamiliarity is not logical, however, if a Native American and African-American creolism is seen as the source of South Carolina colonoware. Put another way, if Native Americans had shared their pottery-making knowledge with enslaved Africans (sensu Steen et al. 1996), they did not do a very good job. They seem to have failed to discuss the limitations of the local materials, and they failed to suggest temper additions or changes in decorative modes that would have lessened firing loss.

More sensibly, the relatively high rate of spalling among colonoware from slave contexts in South Carolina can be seen to indicate a foreign (i.e., African or African-Caribbean) technological and decorative tradition dragged to a South Carolina setting. The high incidence of spalling is not consistent with a genesis of colonoware in an African-American and Native American creolization.

References Cited

Ferguson, L
1992 Uncommon Ground: Archaeology and Early African America, 1650-1800. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington.

Lewis, K., and H. Haskell
1980 Hampton II: Further Archaeological Investigations at a Santee River Plantation. Research Manuscript
Series, No. 161, Institute of Archaeology and Anthropology
, University of South Carolina, Columbia.

Pietak, L.M., C. Espenshade, J. Holland, and L. Kennedy
1998 Slave L~feways on Spring Island: Data Recovery Excavations at 38BU5, Beaufort County, South Carolina. Report prepared for Spring Island Company. TRC Garrow Associates, Inc., Atlanta.

Steen, C., D. Elliott, R Folse-Elliott, and A.N. Warren
1996 Further Excavations at John de al Howe's Let he Farm. Report prepared for the South Carolina Department of Archives and History. Diachronic Research Foundation, Columbia, South Carolina.

Wheaton, T.R., A. Friedlander, and P.H. Garrow
1983 Yaughan and Curriboo Plantations: Studies in Afro-American Archaeology. Report prepared for the U.S.Army Corps of Engineers, Charleston District. Soil Systems, Inc., Marietta, Georgia

Zierden, MA, LM. Drucker, and J. Calhoun
1986 Home Upriver: Rural Life on Daniels Island, Berkeley County, South Carolina. Report prepared for the South Carolina Department of Highways and Public Transportation. Charleston Museum, Charleston.

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Archeological Investigations at Monterey

Hank McKelway, Cultural Resource Analysts, Inc., Lexington, KY

Phase m investigations were recently completed at the 19"' and 20"'-century hamlet of Monterey, located along Paris Pike in Bourbon County, Kentucky. Within the community, a toll house operated along the macadamized turnpike, built in 1835. A local wool carding operation used this new commercial highway to transport goods, while blacksmith shops serviced traffic along this major thoroughfare from Lexington to Paris.

The site of Monterey is especially significant with regard to African-American history in Kentucky. Within the small community a free African-American family, of ex-slaves, resided on a lot bought in 1835 by a freed African-American woman. Contemporaneously, on another lot in the community enslaved African Americans were also resident. African Americans continued to reside at Monterey into the 20"' century. One resident, William Moore, appears to have been a prominent community blacksmith who donated a parcel of his land for the formation of an A.M.E. church.

The site was first located through archival research associated with initial Phase I archeological surveys to widen Paris Pike conducted by archeologists from the Kentucky Transportation Cabinet. Cultural Resource Analysts was selected to conduct Phase II investigations of the hamlet, and designed the testing program to facilitate the identification of the significant cultural resources within the community. Surveyors located all five historic property lot boundaries at Monterey using deed records and a computerized historic mapping program. A more extensive systematic shovel testing program collected data used to create artifact density maps. Concentrations of architectural material dating to the early 19k" century suggested the locations of early residences. State of the art remote sensing equipment was also utilized. Dr. Berle Clay conducted the field study and generated maps of the site area depicting anomalies. Phase III investigations ensued, and subsequent backhoe trenching and manual excavation located eleven structures and outbuildings, including the residences of free and enslaved African-Americans.

To begin the investigation of this early hamlet, Dr. Jeff Mauck reviewed pertinent archival records of the area. Mauck's research documented a very rich history. The hamlet contained antebellum free and enslaved African-American and European-American residents, along with two blacksmith shops, a wool carding shop, and a residence that functioned as a toll house. According to census records, there was an influx of freed African Americans into the hamlet in the later 19"' century.

The archival overview established the presence of African Americans at Monterey. In Lot 1, Dr. Mauck established the presence of a freed African-American couple located in a residence at the far eastern end of the project area. Her master had freed Frankie Robison at the age of 35. Her husband Henry's freedom had been purchased, perhaps with Frankie's help, for four hundred dollars. In 1856, Henry inherited the property from Franky. Interestingly, he subsequently transferred the title to the land as well as three horses, three cows and one wagon to Sidney Clay, a prominent local land holder, in a deed of trust for the benefit of Robison's new wife Charlotte. He arranged for Clay to manage the tract in such a way that Charlotte would have a place to live for the remainder of her years. The 1860 census indicates that Henry Robison was a 70 year old free black laborer. His wife Charlotte was 57. Francis Clay, Charlotte's daughter was 20. In 1868, an apparently widowed Charlotte Robison sold the property to Willis Brown, a local African-American resident, who resided on the lot until after the turn of the century.

W.P. Dorsey, an European American, acquired Lot 3 near the center of the site area in 1849. The 1860 census listed Willis Dorsey, age 44, as a "merchant." He owned $600 of real estate and possessed a personal estate of $1000. Living in the house was his wife Sarah, age 44, and five children. Of special significance was the 1860 slave census stating that he owned three slaves, one female and two males, and that two lived outside Dorsey's house.

On Lot 4, adjacent to Dorsey's lot, Harriet Moore, an African American, acquired the property in 1865. Her husband was William Moore, a blacksmith. He had apparently rented the old Anderson place and operated the blacksmith shop for several years previous to the purchase. The 1860 census reported Moore, a 45 year old "mulatto" blacksmith, who stated his personal estate to be worth $100, living in the survey area. His wife Harriet, age 26, and son Moses, also a blacksmith, also lived in the survey area. The 1860 manufacturing census sheds additional light on this family. It lists a "Billy" Moore --the name which Moore went by on other legal documents--as being a blacksmith with $1000 invested in his operation. He used $500 of iron annually, employed two male workers, paid $60 a month in wages, and produced an annual product valued at $2000.

Excavations identified structures and midden areas associated with the African-American occupants of Monterey. Backhoe trenching and unit excavation across the eastern margin of the site area encountered the chimney pad, foundation remnants, and external root cellar of the residence of free African Americans, the Robisons. Artifacts associated with the chimney pad date to the early 19"' century, and included quantities of domestic debris and faunal remains.

In Lot 3, near the center of the site area the remains of Dorsey's house were identified, and the foundations of a two-pen cabin were uncovered at the back edge of the house Lot. This structure likely housed the two slaves noted in the documents. Domestic and faunal debris was abundant in and around the cabin.

In Lot 4, the double end-chimney foundations of Mrs. Anderson's early 19"'-century house were uncovered. At the back end of this Lot, a midden dating to the occupation of William Moore was identified. Moore's blacksmith shop was identified as well, and the associated worked metal artifacts suggest his smithing was focused on horsehoeing and wagon repairs associated no doubt with traffic along the old turnpike.

The Phase III investigations at Monterey were concluded in mid- December. The important components of the small town were located, and the research to understand the early lifeways and relationships of these early Kentuckians is underway. The potential significance of this site is focused on comparing the material culture differences between the free and enslaved African Americans, and their European-American neighbors at Monterey. A highly successful public tour program was also initiated at Monterey.

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Historical Research in the National Parks

As reported in CRM: Cultural Resource Management (Vol. 22, No. 1, Supplement), there have been several recent historical studies sponsored or supported by, or related to, National Parks which may be of interest of readers of AA A. For more information, contact the responsible park unit.

The University of Arkansas, Department of Anthropology and the Center for Arkansas and Regional Studies completed a study of African-American culture in southwest Missouri for the George Washington Carver National Monument.

An oral history project focusing on African Americans is being undertaken by Arvilla Payne-Jackson and Sue Taylor for the Prince William Forest Park in Virginia.

Several products have resulted from the Park Service's recent interest in the Underground Railroad. Underground Railroad, National Park Handbook 156, was completed for the Washington Office of the Park Service by Larry Gara, et al. In addition, Marie Tyler-McGraw and Kira K Badamo completed the Underground Railroad Resources in the United States Theme Study.

Barbara Yocum's historic structure report for the Smith School House was published by Boston African American National Historic Site.

A number of studies of free and bound labor were completed for Hampton National Historic Site in Maryland, including "The African-American Experience at Hampton" by Kent K Lancaster and Marilyn Davis.

Dean Rowley completed a historic resource study of the Auburn Avenue Community, 1865-1930 for the Martin Luther King, Jr. National Historic Site in Atlanta.

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Internet Resources

To mark Black History Month, 1999, the Washington Office of the National Park Service complied the following list of internet resources for African-American history.

We shall Overcome: Historic Place of the Civil Rights Movement:

Our Shared History: Celebrating African American History & Culture:

Aboard the Underground Railroad:

African American Heritage in the Golden Crescent:

Lost, Tossed and Found: Clues to African American Life at Manassas NBP:

Underground Railroad:
Underground Railroad, Special Resources Study: gov/undergroundrr.

Underground Railroad, Theme Study:

Underground Railroad, Archeology Study:

African American Parks and Sites, Detailed listing and Web Connections:

NPS books on African American History & Culture:

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Nicodemus National Historic Site, Kansas, Dedication

This unit of the National Park Service was officially dedicated on August 1, 1999 in a ceremony attended by approximately 1,000 people. The event was as part of the community's 120th annual homecoming celebration. The park, which was officially established on November 12, 1996, is presently being managed by Fort Lamed National Historic Site.

Nicodemus, Kansas, was settled in 1877 by African Americans who left the South to seek true freedom and self-government on the northwestern Kansas prairie. Despite many hardships, and the failure of the railroad to come through the town, the residents persevered and Nicodemus still survives. It is the only remaining all African-American town west of the Mississippi. The park preserves five historic structures in the town and will interpret the role Nicodemus played in regional and national history.

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Photographs of African Americans at the Library of Congress

African Americans represented in the Civil War Photograph Collection in the Prints and Photographs Reading Room fall into several categories, including soldiers, civilians attached to the military, and contraband and refugees. Although images of African American soldiers are in high demand, they are not well represented here. Each image is listed by group ("LOT") number, and a brief description and the identification numbers needed for reproduction requests are provided. For record-keeping purposes, both glass and film negative numbers are cited. However, in ordering reproductions, the film negative number must be used, if one exists. Images with negative numbers beginning "LC-B815..." are stereographic images.

The list includes citations to three major works, which are noted as LC staff encounter reproductions of images in them. The works are:

-Gardner, Alexander. Photographic Sketch Book of the Civil War. Reprint. New York: Dover, [1959]. [LC cal number: E468.7.G19] (cited as "Gardner's Photographic Sketch Book.")

-Image of War, 1861-1865. 6 vol. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1981-1984. [various call numbers] (cited as "Image of War")

- Miller, Francis Tervelyan, ed. The Photographic History of the Civil War. 10 vol. New York: T. Yoseloff, [1957] [LC call number: E468.7.M64 1957] (cited as "Miller")

LOT 4161-C

1."Store House of Christian Commission, Washington,
D.C." Shows three blacks posed with a family in front of a store; the blacks stand on the ground and the others pose on the porch (marked 721). Reproduced in Miller, vol.
VII, p. 32. LC-B8184-7721 (film negative).

LOT 4161-D

1."Headquarters of Signal Crops, Washington, D.C., April,
1865." Shows black man standing at gate. LC-B8171-
7814 (film negative), LC-U5Z62-50173 (film negative).

2."Quartermaster's Warehouses, Washington, D.C., April,
1865." Shows black men standing in front of
warehouses; blacks and whites stand separate. LCB8184-10723 (film negative).

LOT 4161-E

1."Old State Department Building, 15th and Pennsylvania Avenue." Shows a black man seated selling bread. LCB8184-10707 (film negative).

LOT 4161-H

1."Slave Pen, Alexandria, Va." Shows four black soldiers standing at attention along a wagon in front of the
firm of Price & Birch Co. (marked 2296, stereo by the
War Photograph and Exhibition Co.). LC-B8171-2296
(film negative); LC-B811-2296 (glass negative).
2.Portrait of a lone black woman standing in front of the "slave pen" in Alexandria, Va., the firm of Price & Birch Co., "Slave Dealers," in the background (marked 2300). LC-B8u-2300 (glass negative).

3."Freedmen's Village, Arlington, Va." Shows about 100 blacks lined up in front of barracks with books, evidently a school group learning to read. LC-B8184-B1163 (film negative).

4."Freedmen's Barracks, Arlington, Va." Shows a group of freedmen in front of barracks. LC-B8184-B-350 (film negative).

5."Building Stockade, Alexandria, Va." Shows a group of black construction workers in front of a wooden stockade digging a ditch. Reproduced in Miller, vol. 5, p. 9L LC-B8184-524 (film negative).

LOT 4162 (Stereograph File)

1."Ruins of Richmond, April, 1865." Shows a black man seated in front of ruins. (Marked "6260.") (No negative number.)

LOT 4162-B

1."U.S. Christian Commission Office, Richmond, Va., April, 1865." Shows a group including blacks in front of a building (marked 3371). LC-B8171-3371 (film negative).

2."Group of Freedmen, Richmond, Va." Shows a black family and men seated along the canal with the ruins in the background. LC-B8171-948 (film negative).

3."View of Canal Bridge at Foot of 7th Street, Richmond."
Shows black children standing on the bridge. LC-B8171-
868 (film negative); LC-USZ62-58817 (film negative);
LC-B811-868 (glass negative).

LOT 4162-C

1."Headquarters of the U.S. Christian Commission, Richmond, Va., April, 1865." Shows a group including black men, women and children in front of building (marked 841). LC-B8184-B-41 (film negative).

2."Washington Headquarters, Richmond, Va." Shows a black woman seated on the sidewalk in front of a building. LC-B815-935 (glass negative).

3."The African Church, Richmond, Va." Shows a group of blacks in front of the church (marked B1211). LCB8184-B-1211 (film negative).

LOT 4162-D

1."Ruins on Carey Street, Richmond, Va." Shows white men inspecting the ruins with one black man holding a coat (marked B250). LC-B8184-250 (film negative).

2."The Fall of Richmond, Refugees, April 2, 1865." Shows black refugees on a boat with household belongings. Reproduced in Miller, vol.5, pp. 318-319. LC-B8171-7617 (film negative).

3."The African Church." Shows a group of blacks in front of church (marked 3368). LC-B8171-3368 (film negative); LC-B811-3368 (glass negative).

4."St. John's Church." Shows a black man and little girl with white children in front of church (marked 3366). LC-B811-3366 (glass negative).

LOT 4165-G

1."General Lafayette, Headquarters at Yorktown, Va." (Revolutionary War). Shows a group of blacks in front of a house; they appear to be servants. LC-B815-369 (glass negative).

LOT 4166-F (Stereograph File)

1."Bomb-proof quarters of Major Strong at Dutch Gap, Va., July, 1864." Shows two black soldiers seated outside of quarters. LC-B8171-2551 (film negative); LC-B8ii-2551 (glass negative).

LOT 4167

1."Collecting Remains of the Dead at Cold Harbour, Va." Collecting remains for reinterument after the war. Shows a black man sitting on the ground in front of a barrel full of skulls and bones. Probably four black men in the background digging graves. Reproduced in Gardner's ..j'hotographic Sketchbook., vol.2, plate 94. LC-B8184-4154 (film negative).

2."Monument of Battlefield at Bull Run, Va." Shows a group portrait of troops in front of the monument with a black boy among them. LC-B817-7532R (glass negative).

LOT 4168

1."Burial of Dead, Fredericksburg, Va." Shows a black man digging graves. LC-B8184-B-473 (film negative); LC-B811-2506 (glass negative).

LOT 4171

1."Captain J.M. Robertson and Staff, 1st Brigade Horse Artillery, Brandy Station, Va., February, 1864." Shows uniformed blacks in back of white officers. LC-B8171-7555 (film negative).

2."Camp U.S. Engineers, near Brandy Station, Va., March,
1864." Shows black man holding a horse in a field. (No negative number).

3."Headquarters, 1st Brigade Horse Artillery, near Brandy Station, Va., February, 1864." Shows a black servant
standing beside a stack of firewood while white officers pose for portrait. LC-B8171-7637 (film negative).

4."Staff Officers Mess, Headquarters of the Army of the Potomac, Brandy Station, Va., April, 1864." Shows a group of white officers eating while a black servant stands behind them with a pitcher of water (marked 132). (No negative number).

5."Headquarters Army of the Potomac, Brandy Station, Va., April, 1864." Shows camp of Telegraph Corps, several black men working and white men relaxing. (No negative number).

LOT 4172

1."Execution of colored soldier (William Johnson), Petersburg, Va., June 20,1864." Shows hanging man alone, the charge on which he was convicted was attempted rape. LC-USZ62-49608 (film negative); LCB815-789 (glass negative)

2."View of South Carolina." Shows a man in a field with a small black boy. LC-BH822-200 (glass negative).

LOT 4172-A (Stereograph File)

1."Contraband Foreground." Shows three black boys sitting with three Union officers in front of a tent. Stereo view by Anthony and Co., New York. LC-B8184-2062 (film negative).

2."A Group of Contrabands." Same image as #1 in Lot 4172-B (described below). LC-B8171-2594 (film negative); LC -U5Z62-27821 (film negative).

3."A Negro Family Coming into Union Lines." Same image as #11 in Lot 4172-B (described below) but printed as a stereograph. LC-B8171-657 (film negative; half stereograph), LC-U5Z62-57031 (film negative; full stereograph).

LOT 4172-B

1."Negro Teamsters." Shows group of seven contraband dressed in old Union uniforms standing in front of a wagon and shack. Same image as #1 in Lot 4172-A (described above) except printed as half stereograph. LC-B8171-2594 (film negative; half stereograph).

2."Convalescent Colored Troops at Aiken's Landing. M. Aiken's house at right." Shows forty black soldiers sitting and standing on a slight hill. LC-B8171-2608 (film negative).

3."Headquarters of General Lafayette during the Revolutionary War, Yorktown, Va." Shows group of soldiers and blacks in front of small house, two black washer women with tubs, black man with an ax resting on the ground. LC-B8171-372 (film negative); LC-B815-372 (glass negative).

4."Group of contraband at Follers House, Cumberland Landing, Va., May, 1862." Shows about twenty ex-slaves sitting in front of a cabin; excellent photograph. LCB8171-383 (film negative).

5."Contraband." Shows two black men, escaped slaves, sitting in front of a white army tent, one with cigar and the other with a soup ladle. LC-B8171-221 (film negative).

6."Fugitive Negroes, fording the Rappahannock River, following the retreat of Pope's Army, August, 1862." Shows wagon pulled by oxen across the river to join the Union Army in 1862. LC-B815-519 (glass negative).

7."Fugitive Negroes, fording the Rappahannock River, following the retreat of Pope's Army, August, 1862." Closer view of 6, above. LC-B8171-518 (film negative).

8."John Henry, servant at Headquarters, 3rd Army Corps, October, 1863." Shows black servant sitting in front of a large army tent. LC-B817-7339 (glass negative).

9."Breaking Camp, Brandy Station, Va., May, 1864." Shows black man next to chimney, lean-to in the background. Reproduced in Gardner's _Photographic Sketchbook..., vol. 2, plate 63. LC-B8184-4165 (film negative).

10."Camp of the Negro Labor Crew of the Q. M. Depot, Belle Plain, Va." Shows a group of shacks with clothes drying and seven blacks (contraband) standing in front of the shacks. LC-B8184-324 (film negative).

11."Arrival of Negro Family into Union Lines," Shows an overcrowded wagon with escaping slaves pulled by two mules. Reproduced in Miller, vol.3, p. 223 (bottom). Same image as #3 in Lot 4172-A (described above). LCB8171-657 (film negative, half stereograph); LC-B811-657 (glass negative, half stereograph); LC-U5Z62-57031 (full stereograph).

12."Negro Teamsters at Butler's Signal Tower, Bermuda Hundred, Va., 1864." Shows a group of black teamsters. LC-B8171-2596 (film negative); LC-B811-2596 (glass negative).

13."Black cook at City Point, Va." LC-B8171-2597 (film negative).

14."Camp of 10th U.S. Colored Infantry." Shows group of blacks standing outside tents. (Marked 4319). (No negative number.)

15."Camp of 27th U.S. Colored Infantry." Shows tents and men standing amid trees in distance. (Marked 4096.) (No negative number.)

LOT 4172-C

1."Picket Post." Shows two black soldiers in uniform aiming rifles while leaning against the edge of a
damaged wooden house. LC-B8171-2553 (film negative); LC-B811-2553 (glass negative).

LOT 4172-F

1."General Rawlins Horse."" Shows a black boy on a horse taken at Cold Harbor, Va., June 14, 1864. (No negative number).

2."Captain Pierce's Private Horses, Wagons, etc..., Culpeper, Va., Sept., 1863." Shows a black man holding two horses and a young boy on the ground. (No negative number).

3."Captain Beckwith's Horse, Headquarters Army of the Potomac, February, 1863." Shows a black man holding a horse. LC-U5Z62-74527 (film negative).

LOT 4172-G

1."Signal Tower at Point of Rocks, Appomattox River, Va.," Shows a black man standing along with signal core. Reproduced in Miller, vol.1, p. 37. LC-B8171-2500 (film negative); LC-B811-2500 (glass negative).

LOT 4172-H

1."Headquarters of the New York Herald in the Field, Bealton, Va., August, 1863." Shows a black servant behind two seated reporters writing (marked 237). LCB8184-7237 (film negative).

2."Headquarters of the New York Herald in the field." Shows a black man holding a horse in front of a tent (marked B187). Photograph by A. J. Russell, in Miller, Vol. 13, p. 293. LC-B8184-B-187 (film negative).

3."Brady's Photographic Outfit in front of Petersburg,
Va., 1864 (?)." (U.S. Army Signal Corps "Brady
Photograph," catalogue, 1921, no. B-5077, Brady not in
photograph). Reproduced in Miller, vol. 13, p. 27. LCB8184-B-5077 (film negative).

LOT 4173

1."1st Colored Infantry." Shows infantry at attention from a side view (marked 3032). LC-B816-3032 (glass negative).

2."Soldiers on Review, South Carolina." Shows black troops on review (2 images). LC-BH822-341 and LCBH822-342 (glass negatives).

LOT 4174

1."Battery of Light 12 Pounders on Ordnance Wharf, City Point, Va." Shows long line of cannons guarded by one black soldier. LC-B8184-2583 (film negative); LC-B811-2583 (glass negative).

LOT 4176

1."Pontoon Bridge, Belle Plain Landing, Va." Photograph by A. J. Russell. Reproduced in Miller, vol.5, pp.
236-37.LC-B8184-612 (film negative).

LOT 4178

1."Dutch Gap Canal, November, 1864." Shows two black soldiers while canal is under construction (marked 4320). (No negative number)

LOT 4179

1."Quartermaster's Wharf~ Alexandria, Va." Shows a group of about forty black laborers, mostly sitting on wharf with shovels, buckets, etc. (marked B440). LC-B8184-440 (film negative).

2."Forge scene at Antietam, Md., April, 1862." Shows a black man seated with a shoe and hammer. LC-B8171-7940 (film negative).

3."Commissary Tent at Headquarters of the Army of the
Potomac, near Fairfax Courthouse, Va., June, 1863."
Shows four blacks, one being handed provisions and
another weighing meat (marked 438). LC-B8184-7438
(film negative).

LOT 4180

1."Camp of Chief Ambulance Officer, 9th Army Corps in front of Petersburg, Va., August, 1864." Shows a group of white civilians, Army officers and a black servant sitting under a hospital tent. LC-B8161-7538 (film negative).

2."Quarters of Chief Ambulance Officer, 9th Army Corps in front of Petersburg, Va., August, 1864." Shows a group of officers with two black servants (marked 818). LCB8184-818 (film negative).

3."Kitchen of 'Soldiers Rest,' Alexandria, Va." Shows a black man cooking (marked 863). LC-U5Z62-23246 (film negative).

LOT 4186

1."General Paul Humphreys and Staff, June, 1865." Shows two black servants posed with white staff on either end of tent. (No negative number).

2."General N.E. McLaughlin and Staff, near Washington, D.C., July, 1865." Shows a black servant with white staff (two images). LC-U5Z62-96478 (film negative); LC-B8184-7180 (film negative).

3."General George Stoneman and Staff, near Richmond, Va., June, 1862." Shows a small group of white officers with a black servant sitting on the ground with a dog in his lap. Photograph by James F. Gibson. LC-B815- 445 (glass negative).

4."Major General Fits John Porter and Staff, Headquarters of the Fifth Army Corps, Harrisons Landing, James River, August, 1862." Shows a group of white officers (each identified) and a female black servant in the
background (identification reads: "Chief cook and bottle washer, Mrs. Fairfax"). (No negative number)

LOT 4187

1."Officers, 33rd N.Y. Infantry: Field and Staff of 33rd
N.Y. Infantry, Camp Granger, near Washington, D.C."
Shows officers with black staff members included. LCB8184-4542 (film negative).

2."Officers, 4th U.S. Colored Infantry, Fort Slocum, April, 1865." Shows a group of white officers and several blacks in uniform. (marked 689). (No negative number)

3."Officers, 4th U.S. Colored Infantry, Fort Slocum, April,
1865." Shows group of white officers and three blacks, one in uniform. (Marked 851.) LC-B8171-7851 (film negative).

4."Officers of the 114th Penn. Infantry in front of Petersburg, Va., August, 1864." Shows two black servants with a small group of white officers (marked 144). (No negative number)

5."Field and Staff of the 39th U.S. Colored Infantry in front of Petersburg, Va., August, 1864." Shows two black soldiers with white officers (marked 51). (No negative number)

6."Officers, Headquarters Army of the Potomac, Warrenton, Va., September, 1864." Shows a group of officers with black servant. Reproduced in Gardner's Yhotographic Sketchbook.., vol. 1, plate 27. (No negative number)

7."Commissioned and Non-Commissioned Staff of the 93rd Infantry, Ballston, Va., 1863," (marked ii). (No negative number)

8."Officers of N.S. Horse Artillery, Army of the Potomac, Culpeper, Va., September, 1863." Shows black servant serving whiskey from a barrel to white officers. (No negative number).

9.Group of officers in front of a house with a black servant seated on the ground. (No negative number)

10."Captains Jane and Clark." Shows white officers with black servant. (No negative number)

11."Major H. H. Humphrey and Others, June, 1865." Shows white officers in front of a tent with black servant holding a flask in the background. (No negative number)

12."Officers of the 107th U.S. Colored Infantry." Shows a group of officers on a porch, including one black guard at attention (marked 684). (No negative number)

LOT 4188

1."Negro Soldiers." Identified by Bill Wiley in 1953:
thought to be a group of Union soldiers, ca. 1863-1865, with their Northern officers and teachers probably on the South Carolina coast. LC-B8184-10061 (film negative).

2.Unidentified group of officers in front of a house with their black servant. (No negative number)

3."Gettysburg, Camp of Captain Huft, July, 1865." Shows white men relaxing by their tents while six black servants cook. (No negative number)

4."Provost Marshal's Office, Acquia Creek Landing, Va., Winter 1862-63." Shows a black clerk off to the side of a group of white men. Reproduced in Gardner's _Photographic Sketchbook.., vol. 1, plate 46. (No negative number)

5."Captain Howard and Group Headquarters, Army of the Potomac, Fairfax, Va., June, 1863." Shows a black boy seated on the ground in front of white staff. LCB8184-7549 (ifim negative).

6.'Telegraph Corps, Brandy Station, Va., April, 1864." Shows black men chopping wood while white soldiers relax near their tents. LC-BH84-7353 (glass negative).

7."Group, 22nd N.Y. State Militia, near Harper's Ferry,
Va., 1861 (?)." Shows black soldiers seated and black
cook standing in the background (marked B838).
Reproduced in Miller, vol. 7, p. 69, also in LOT 4189.
LC-B8184-B-163 (film negative).

8."Headquarters of the 16th N.Y. Infantry." Shows a black servant standing behind two white soldiers playing chess. Reproduced in Miller, vol. 8, p. 241. LC-B8184-B-305 (film negative).

9."Headquarters of the Army of the Potomac, October,
1862." Shows white officers seated on ground and a black servant seated behind them in a rocking chair, men are identified. LC-U5Z62-82793 (film negative).

10."Group at Quartermaster General's Office, Washington, D.C., April, 1865." Shows a black man, probably a servant, among large group in front of a building (three images). LC-B8184-7826. Reproduced in Miller, vol. 8, p. 38. LC-B8184-7871 (film negative); LCB8184-7828 (film negative).

11."Group at Quartermaster General's Office, Washington,
D.C., April, 1865." Shows a black man, probably a
servant, among large group in front of a Renwick
Building, Washington, D.C. Reproduced in Miller, vol.
8, p. 38. LC-B817-7827 (glass negative).

12."Headquarters of General O.B. Wilcox, in front of Petersburg, Va., August, 1864." Shows white officers watching a cock fight conducted by two black servants (chickens clearer in this image). LC-B8171-7222 (film negative); LC-B817-7222 (glass negative).
13."Headquarters of General 0. B. Wilcox, in front of
Petersburg, Va., August, 1864." Shows white officers
watching a cock fight conducted by two black servants
(people slightly better in this image). LC-B8161-7722A
(film negative); LC-B817-7952 (glass negative).
14."Mess House at Government Stables, Washington, D.C.,
April, 1865." Shows group of whites and black kitchen servants standing in front of the kitchen and mess hall. LC-B817-7676 (glass negative).

15."Scouts and Guides of the Army of the Potomac." Shows a large group of guides and black man wearing an apron standing with them. LC-B8171-7105 (film negative).

16."Commissary Clerks, Acquia Creek Landing, February,
1863." Shows seven clerks in camp, black clerk seated on the left. (No negative number)

17."Provost Marshall Depot, Petersburg, August, 1864." Shows a group with two black men in the back. LC-B817-7537 (glass negative).

18."9th Mass. Infantry, Camp near Washington, D.C., 1861." Shows white officers with black servant seated on the ground (marked 8142). LC-U5Z62-12228 (film negative).

LOT 4189

1."2nd Rhode Island Infantry." Shows two black boys with a group of white officers (marked 817). (No negative number)

2."2nd Rhode Island Infantry." Shows three black boys seated on the ground in front of three white officers (marked 919). (No negative number)

3."2nd Rhode Island Infantry." Shows a black boy reclining and smiling in front of infantrymen (marked 1055). (No negative number)

4."2nd Rhode Island Infantry." Shows a black man in the background under shelter behind a group of white officers (marked 821). (No negative number)

5."2nd Rhode Island Infantry." Shows a black boy seated in front of three standing soldiers (marked 1053.) (No negative number)

6."2nd Rhode Island Infantry." Shows a black man reclining on the ground in font of a group of infantrymen (marked 1041). (No negative number)

7."7th New York State Militia, Camp Cameron, D.C., 1861." Shows a black boy wearing an apron holding a frying pan in front of three white officers (marked B952). (No negative number)

8."7th New York State Militia, Camp Cameron, D.C., 1861." Shows a black boy seated in front of a group of white officers (marked B954). (No negative number)

9."7th New York State Militia, Camp Cameron, D.C., 1861." Shows a black boy shining shoes next to white officers (marked 13950). (No negative number)

10."7th New York State Militia, Camp Cameron, D.C., 1861." Shows a black servant washing in a bowl on the ground in front of a group of white officers (marked 13902). (No negative number)

11."22nd New York State Militia, near Harper's Ferry, Va.,
1861." Shows a black boy carrying things from a tent (marked B873). (No negative number).

12."23rd New York Infantry." Shows a black man seated with white officers shining boots (marked B1028). (No negative number)

13."23rd New York Infantry." Shows a black man seated with one white officer in front of a tent (marked
B1065). (No negative number)

LOT 4190F

1."Co. E, 4th U.S. Colored Infantry, Ft. Lincoln,
defenses of Washington." Shows 27 blacks in two lines with rifles resting on the ground (marked 890). LCB8171-7890 (film negative); LC-B817-7890 (glass negative).

2."Band of 107th U.S. Colored Infantry." Shows a group of 20 black soldiers with musical instruments (marked 861). LC-B8171-7861 (film negative).

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News and Announcements

HERMITAGE SUMMER INTERNSHIPS: President Andrew Jackson's home, The Hermitage, near Nashville, TN has summer internship positions in historical archaeology. Contact Ms. Jillian Galle, Research Archaeologist, at (615) 889-2941 for additional information.

REMEMBERING SLAVERY: This Library of Congress project makes available for the first time of many of the hundreds of interviews of elderly ex-slaves made by the Federal Writers' Project in the 1930s. The interviews are available in both recordings and transcriptions. Additional information is available by calling (202) 707-5221 or on the WWW at

MARYLAND MUSEUM OF AFRICAN-AMERICAN HISTORY AND CULTURE: This new museum, planned for Baltimore's Inner Harbor, will be dedicated to collecting, preserving, and interpreting the history, arts, material culture, and spiritual expression of African-Americans in Maryland. The project, a public/private partnership, is part of the Department of Housing and Community Development's African-American Initiative. For information contact Ms. Nikki Smith at (410) 514-7643.

VOLUNTEER EXCAVATION OPPORTUNITY: Dr. Mary McCorvie (McCorvie_Mary/ Forest Archaeologist at Shawnee National Forest, is planning a project at Miller Grove, a southern illinois freedmen fanning community, for June 1999.

AFRICAN-AMERICAN BIBLIOGRAPHIES FROM THE NATIONAL AGRICULTURAL LIBRARY: Ms. Deborah Richardson, Head of Educational Programs at the NAL, has compiled three bibliographies in the "Selected Sources from the AGRICOLA Database" series: 1) African-American History and Culture, 2) African-Americans in Agriculture, and 3) African-American Sociology and Economics. Additional information is available from the NAL at (301)504-5779 or

AFRICAN STUDIES QUARTERLY is an online journal of African studies, indexed in Public Affairs Information Service. It can be found at

AFRICAN IMPACT ON THE MATERIAL CULTURE OF THE AMERICAS: Proceedings from this 1996 conference are now available by mail from the Museum of Early Southern Decorative Arts for $20.00 (plus $1.20 sales tax each and shipping $3.00 for the first copy, $1.75 additional copies). MasterCard, Visa, and checks (payable to "MESDA/Impact") accepted. P.O. Box 10310, Winston-Salem, NC 27108.

FRIENDS OF THE FREEDMEN'S CEMETERY: The Freedmen's Cemetery in Alexandria, VA is the rediscovered resting place of Freedmen (some of whom served in the Union Army) and "Contrabands." The site is adjacent to the area to be affected by the proposed reconstructed of the Wilson (1-95) Bridge. The Friends were formed to research and monitor the site. Additional information is available from the Alexandria Black History Resources Center at (703) 838-4356.

WAC 4 was well-attended by American historical archaeologists, and two sessions addressed African-American archaeology in particular: 1) Archaeology, bioanthropology, and African identity in the diaspora (Epperson and Agorsah, organizers) and 2) African-American archaeology (Wheaton and McCarthy, organizers). The complete program, session and paper abstracts, and the full text of many papers are available on the WWW at

CALL FOR PAPERS: The 84TH meeting of the Association for the Study of Afro-American Life and History will be held October 6-10, 1999, in Detroit, MI. Abstracts and one-page CVs should be sent to: Dr. Jacob Gordon and Dr. William Tuttle, Jr., 1028 Dole Center, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS 66045.

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Book Reviews and Notes

Fort Mose: Colonial America's Black Fortress of Freedom, Kathleen Deagan & Darcie MacMahon, University of Florida Press/Florida Museum of Natural History, Gainesville, 1995. 54 pp. Plates, index.

Jeanne A. Ward, Applied Archaeology and History Associates, Annapolis, MD

This volume presents the story of the many freed and escaped blacks that inhabited a small, Spanish-sanctioned, outpost north of St. Augustine more than 250 years ago. Very detailed historic research is combined with the results of test excavations at the site of the second Fort Mose. The volume is lavishly illustrated and written for a general audience.

As the presentation of a traveling museum exhibit in text form, the volume is divided into many short sections, each detailing particular aspects of the history of African-Americans in the Spanish colonies. The book begins with sections detailing the period prior to the establishment of the fort. These sections include: "Spanish Sanctuary," "African Origins," "Africa and Iberia: Precedents of American Slavery," "Slavery in Iberia After the Moors," "Coming to America: Africans in the Early Spanish Colonies," "Slaves of Disease: Victims of Health," "Black Explorers and Conquistadors," "Palenques and Cimarrones: Black and Red Resistance on the Spanish Frontier," "A New Social Order," "African People in the Colonial Southeast," "Neighbors to the North: The Black Community in South Carolina," and "'Giving Liberty to All.'" Through the extensive use of historic records, including numerous illustrations and paintings from the period, and photographs of appropriate items from museum collections, these initial sections depict the active and vital role played by African-Americans in the early history of Spain and the Spanish colonies.

The volume then moves on to the history of the establishment of Fort Mose. In "The Establishment of Mose: A Fortress of Freedom" we learn that there were two Fort Moses. The first fort was established in late 1738 after more than 100 African fugitives reach St. Augustine. This fort and an adjacent community, Gracia Real de Santa Teresa de Mose, were built about two miles north of St. Augustine. As word of Fort Mose spread it came to represent freedom to the more than 40,000 slaves in South Carolina and the Spanish were blamed for the Stono Rebellion of 1739. For the Spanish, the fort represented a vital defense as the fugitives there knew the region well and would fight to the death if invaded from the north.

The first Fort Mose was destroyed in 1740 when English forces attacked St. Augustine. In Urban Interlude, 1740 - 1752 we learn that all of the inhabitants reached the safety of the city where they resided for the next twelve years. "Fort Mose Resurrected" presents the rebuilding of the town and fort in a slightly different location in 1752. The former residents, by then used to the city, reluctantly moved back This section includes extensive records and maps of this second fort as well as artifacts from recent archaeological excavation there.

Again, based primarily on documentary sources but augmented by archaeological data, descriptions of the lives of the residents of Fort Mose are explored in sections concerning "Black Militia in the Spanish Colonies," "Life at Mose: A Cultural Crossroad," "Home and Family," "The Mose Family Tree," "Daily Bread," "African Cowboys on the Spanish Frontier," and "Catholic Converts." In the section titled "Abandonment and Decline" we learn that this second fort was occupied for eleven years. Fort Mose was abandoned in 1763 when Florida became an English colony.

The Search for a Lost Fort describes the methods used to locate the first Fort Mose (now underwater in a marsh) and to locate and investigate the second Fort Mose (now an island). The actual excavations themselves were confined to a number of small trenches placed to identify potential structural components of the fort. Because the fort is not in any immediate danger, this limited excavation was adequate to answer the immediate questions of location and date as well as providing other information concerning lifeways and subsistence activities.

Several sections address the methods by which the Fort was documented. "A Thin Slice of Time" interprets the site's stratigraphy. "Reconstructing the Food of the Past" explains floral and faunal analysis, and food preparation. "Bits and Pieces of History" presents photographs of some of the artifacts, conservation techniques, and the final exhibit.

The volume presents a lively, detailed, positive interpretation of the lives of Africans in the Spanish Colonies. It is very well-suited to a general audience, but also presents information of interest to a professional reader.

Smashing Pots: Feats of Clay from Africa, Nigel Barley, British Museum Press (distributed in the U.S. by the Smithsonian Institution Press), London, 1994. 168 pp. Plates, foreword, notes, bibliography, index.

John P. McCarthy Greenhorne & O'Mara, Inc. Greenbelt, MD

This is a volume of interest to any archaeologist who has even a passing interest in Colonoware or indigenous ceramic traditons. Barley, Assistant Keeper (Curator) in the Department of Ethnography at the British Museum, has produced a survey of the role of pottery in traditional and modern Africa, the technologies used in its production, and the aesthetic effects it achieves.

This is a very well illustrated volume (125 plates), and the accompanying text is well-researched and substantive. Barley draws mostly on the collections of the British Museum, whose considerable holdings still represent a patchy archive. Noting the limitations of trying to address a single aspect of the culture of a vast and ethnographically diverse continent, wherever possible his discussion links specific examples to specific cultures.

Taking an analytical lead from the archaeological literature on ceramics, Barley considers pots as conservative and passive bearers of cultural meanings, associated with women (while metals are innovative and associated with men). Beyond their everyday functions, Barley considers aesthetic, gender roles, power relations, and models of the human body, the seasons of the year, and procreation and reincarnation in ceramic creation and use. Most interesting is his assertion that the importance of pots in Africa derives from a concern with "non-material forces" that can only act through localization in a material object that serves to contain or direct the force (p. 151).

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Conference Report: Slavery in Early South Carolina

Natalie P. Adams, New South Associates, Inc., Columbia, SC

The Institute of Southern Studies (ISS) at the University of South Carolina recently hosted a conference entitled "Slavery in Early South Carolina". The participants were almost all historians, but included an archaeologist and a couple of folklorists.

The conference started with silver jubilee recognition of Peter Wood's Black Majority, published 25 years ago. Philip Morgan's new book Slave Counterpoint was also discussed. Morgan compares the Tidewater and Lowcountry plantation systems, economies, and societies.

Later the first day, papers were presented by Leland Ferguson and Mary Gavin on aspects of the convergence of the various cultures present in colonial South Carolina. Ferguson's paper presented some of his changing ideas about the functions of colonoware bowls, while Gavin's paper focused on African-American medicinal healing. Another session discussed the "voices of slavery" which presented how slave narratives of events were presented by the planter class to the larger community. Papers were presented by Vin Carretta and Robert Olwell.

The morning on the second day started with a session entitled "Making a Slave Society". Cara Anzilotti presented a paper on white women and slave ownership, Gary Hewitt on pro- and anti-slavery in early South Carolina, and Jennifer Morgan on reproducing slavery in colonial South Carolina. One of my favorite sessions was entitled "Labor in the Lowcountry" which discussed the knowledge system of rice agriculture in West Africa and in South Carolina. Unfortunately, due to time constraints, Judith Carney was only able to deliver about two thirds of her paper on the subject. Max Edelson's paper was entitled "'The Planter Stock': Employing Slave Labor in the Colonial Lowcountry." Of particular interest was his idea that planters were constantly trying and constantly failing to replace the task system with a system of gang labor since it did not fit well with agricultural staples other than rice. Virginia Jelatis also presented her dissertation research on the culture of indigo and how it interfaced with rice agriculture grown on the same plantation.

The afternoon session was devoted to the Revolutionary Period and beyond with presentations by Stan Deaton, Daniel Littlefield, and James McMillin. Deaton's paper was on slavery and white anxiety in post-Revolutionary South Carolina, Littlefield's paper was entitled "Henry Laurens, the Revolutionary Generation, and Slavery", and McMillan discussed the African-American "Ellis Island" of South Carolina - Sullivan's Island.

Unfortunately, the conference was not well-advertised. Similar conferences have been sponsored by ISS during Black History month in the past, and those who may be interested should get on their mailing list. Contact ISS by phone at (803) 777-2341, or by mail: The Institute for Southern Studies, Gambrell Hall, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208. http://

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Editorial Staff

Editor/Publisher:John P. McCarthy, Greenhorne & O'Mara, Inc., 9001 Edmonston Road, Greenbelt, MD 20770 (301) 220-1876

Assistant Editor: Paul Mullins, Anthropology Program, George Mason University, MSN-3G5, Fairfax, VA 22030

Book Reviews:This could be YOU! Contact John McCarthy if interested.

Progression!:Carol McDavid, 1406 Sul Ross, Houston, TX 77007

Northeast:James Garmon, Public Archaeology Laboratory, Inc., 210 Lonsdale Avenue, Pawtucket, RI 02860 (401) 728-8780

Mid-Atlantic:Barbara Heath, The Corporation for Jefferson's Poplar Forest, P. O. Box 419, Forest, VA 24551

Southeast:J. W. Joseph, New South Associates, Inc. 6150 East Ponce de Leon Ave., Stone Mountain, GA 30083 (770) 498-4155

Caribbean:Paul Farnsworth, Dept. of Geography and Anthropology, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803

Midwest:Matthew Emerson, Anthropology Department, Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, IL 62026 (618) 692-5689

Mid-South/So. Plains:Leslie "Skip" Stewart-Abernathy, Arkansas Archaeological Survey, P. O. Box 8706 AKU, Russellville, AK 72801 (501) 968-0381

West:Laurie Wilkie, Anthropology Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720


Subscriptions, by the calendar year, are: $4.00 student; $6.00 individual;$8.00 institutions/outside the USA. Payable by check to: "African-AmericanArchaeology"

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Published in cooperation with the Council for Maryland Archaeology: ISBN 1060-0671
Electronic version compiled by Thomas R. Wheaton, New South Associates, Inc.